lithuanian declension chart
When made from verbs, they are mostly made from a past passive participle: vìrti – to boil, vìrtas – boiled, virtìnis – which is boiled, made by boiling. -i, -ie: akmeni, akmenie, seseri, seserie. Some of the words having the suffix -uonis (there are few of such words) have parallel forms in the other declensions: palikuonis, -ies (common gender) and palikuonis, -io m, palikuonė, -ės f. Such change can happen after the change of an accent place: if the word is accented on the ending -is, then the change of declension (-is, -ies > -is, -io) does not occur in speech, and if the accent moves from the ending to the stem in singular nominative, then the change of declension sometimes occurs. nom. Dual forms of pronouns used in the standard language are also optional. Some words in the standard language retain their dual forms (for example du ("two") and abu ("both"), an indefinite number and super-plural words (dauginiai žodžiai in Lithuanian). All these rules are covered in our lessons. -us is known from Elbing vocabulary, it was shortened to -s in Catechisms. valdžià 'power (on somebody); government', m. sg. Note, that in this case the palatalization mark (the letter "i") is marked as a part of the inflection. nom. There are seven cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, instrumental, locative and vocative. Modern Lithuanian declension: a study of its infrastructure. The second sub-paradigm is called "palatalized", which means that the last consonant of the stem before the inflection is always palatalized. Declension occurs in many of the world's languages. There are 7 cases Here are some examples: In English and dideliems in pl. sg. ending or description how to change examples; masculine: a consonant + а: acc. nom. What it looks like. (Instrumental) – asks queston Kuo? single. The elision occur in: Also there's just one occasion, when the whole one-syllable inflection may be skipped. nom., sg. Feminine counterparts for agent's words are vertėja, naudotoja, vartotoja and their vocative is the same to nominative. Kame? Only few borrowed words, like taksì – taxi, tabù – taboo, kupė̃ – compartment (in a train), coupé, are not subject to declension rules. Historically these sounds were nasal: vilką < vilkan, vilkų < vilkun. Such a shift is a mistake of declension. Inflection in singular cases The plural of nouns in this sub-paradigm is identical with the plural of nouns of the a-paradigm (the palatalized sub-paradigm). Šaukiuosi Declension of singular nouns in the Genitive . There are only a few words of -ias type. ), Galininkas This may be done with feminine active participles of the past tense (or of the past iterative tense) in the singular nominative. -ų. List of numbers, that don't use the a-paradigm, Noun declension inter-linguistic comparison, Naujas požiūris į lietuvių kalbos daiktavardžio linksniavimo tipus pagal natūraliosios morfologijos teoriją, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Lithuanian_declension&oldid=987613224, Pages with non-English text lacking appropriate markup from April 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2010, Articles containing Lithuanian-language text, Articles with Lithuanian-language sources (lt), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. See more » Dative case The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink". adjectives of the second declension (their masculine forms). (In farther Plural is omitted. Hey God! It has two different sub-paradigms, one of which is the main paradigm. Count numbers from 1 to 100 in Lithuanian spelling. jis / is – he). The words are given in the same column, when the forms are same. About the chart. time, you need to have a handle on 3 things. The nominative singular ending -ias (sg. Note that the -e ending for the vocative singular applies only to common nouns; proper nouns take the ending -ai. Lithuanian acc. (using what?). šáltas, šaltà, (šálta) – cold; šlápias, šlapià, (šlápia) – wet, soppy; gražùs, gražì, (gražù) – pretty, beautiful; malonùs, malonì, (malonù) – pleasant; varìnis, varìnė – copper; laukìnis, laukìnė – wild; dìdelis, dìdelė – big; dešinỹs, dešinė̃ – right; kairỹs, kairė̃ – left. Dešinys, kairys, didis have neutral gender of the u pattern: dešinu, kairu, didu. Naudininkas Try to concentrate on the lesson and notice the pattern that occurs each time the word changes its place. Note, that the word pats is declined only in masculine in this table. The sub-paradigm for adjectives is fully identical with the main sub-paradigm and is mixed-type, with some inflections palatalized and others not. In Lithuanian language adjectives have three declensions determined by the singular and plural nominative case inflections. An adjective didelis, didelė hasn't pronominal forms. locative of these words have -yje or -uje (-uje appears where it is needed for easier pronunciation): naudotojuje, vėjyje. All the spots with an ‘e’ listed as the declensions do NOT need an extra one. prevails serenity. O Lithuanian and Prussian o denotes a long ō. nom. ), naudotojas – user (naudoti – to use), vartotojas – consumer (vartoti – to consume) have vocative -au: vėjau, vertėjau, naudotojau, vartotojau. Consequently, the suffix is -t-in- for such adjectives. kaimas – village, kiemas – yard). we have, it can be said, prepositional gramar and in Lithuanian - cases and Currently there are only two Baltic languages spoken in the world: Lithuanian and Latvian but in the past there were more, such as: Galindian, old Prussian, Yotvingian, Skalvian, Selonian, Semigallian. Šaukiuosi dangau (voc.)! geràsis – that good one), juõ (nom. Compare jis manęs laukia – 'he waits for me' and mano draugas – 'my friend' ('friend' is in masculine), but in jis mūsų laukia – 'he waits for us' and mūsų draugas – 'our friend', the two genitives coincide as in almost any word. Sg. (Nominative) – asks queston Kas? Inflections of the u-paradigm differ between nouns and adjectives in some cases. Example. The column to the right from these, are for the forms of the first (-as, -is, -ys, -ias) and second (-a (-ia), -ė) declensions; one word, žmogus, is of the fourth in singular. acc. The ą, ę correspond to ų, į in dialects of eastern Lithuania and acc. The links above are only a small sample of our lessons, please open the left side menu to see all links. Dievai (nom.) ir dangus (nom.) (Dative) – asks queston Kam? – in -ą. Latin words of this stem ends in -us in sg. Let’s look at a two-part example using basic declension pattern #1: determiner + adjective. – Hey sky! I call for you. other alive languages) declension (changing of case) of noun and adjectives is gen. akmenes, pl. Šauksmininkas Also don't forget to check the rest of our other lessons listed on Learn Lithuanian. In a case of Old Prussian emen – name, e is dropped in other than sg. However, at least one case is reduced to adverbs and certain fixed expressions and another is extinct in the modern language. Kad gen. are equal. ), mylėk dievą (acc.) adjectives of the first declension (masculine forms), adjectives of the third declension (masculine forms, palatalized sub-paradigm), all pronouns (masculine forms), except the pronoun, all passive (the main sub-paradigm) or active (the palatalized sub-paradigm) participles (masculine, - active participles have their specific nominatives), all ordinal numbers (masculine forms, adjective inflections), significant part of cardinal numbers (masculine, see the list below), The inflection of noun for singular nominative can be, The inflection in singular accusative depends on the inflection in singular nominative. gẽras – good) and gerúo-ju (nom. jūsų! Only a few borrowed words, like taksì – taxi, tabù – taboo, kupė̃ – compartment (in a train), coupé, are not subject to declension. sg., an ending -uo is also known in dialects. (Compare how T in English is pronounced like "sh" when followed by -ion in words like "station", "revolution", or how "due"/ "dew" and "Jew" are pronounced identically by many English speakers). An ogonek indicates that the sound is long. Dukra and sesė are variants of duktė, sesuo of a different declension and meaning – dukra and sesė are more like informal. Nouns having -j- before an ending -as, vėjas – wind, vertėjas – translator (versti – translate; convert; subvert etc. Here is a list of numerals that don't use the a-paradigm in the masculine. ; the first paradigm) alone is a palatal variant of -as, but -ias pattern, differently from -ia, -ius, are not palatalized counterpart for -as (unpalatalized equivalent in sg. Several forms have not only a pronoun added, but have different respective to non-pronominal adjectives ending syllable – longer sound retained: feminine singular nominative -o-ji, masculine singular instrumental and plural accusative, respectively -uo-ju, -uos-ius (the respective forms of a pronoun jis are juo, juos) and one with ogonek, feminine singular instrumental: -ą-ja, -ią-ja; or has a sound -m- not doubled: masculine singular dative and locative, masculine plural dative, feminine plural dative and instrumental, for example -a-jam, -a-jame, -ies-iems, not non-existing -am-jam, -ame-jame, -iems-iems.
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