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Most important of these is the Barada, a river that rises in the Anti-Lebanon Mountains and disappears into the desert. Initially, the two territories were separated by a border that ran in an almost straight line from Jordan to Iran. [27], By Pliny's time, however, this larger Syria had been divided into a number of provinces under the Roman Empire (but politically independent from each other): Judaea, later renamed Palaestina in AD 135 (the region corresponding to modern-day Israel, the Palestinian Territories, and Jordan) in the extreme southwest; Phoenice (established in AD 194) corresponding to modern Lebanon, Damascus and Homs regions; Coele-Syria (or "Hollow Syria") south of the Eleutheris river, and Iraq.[28]. [248] The life expectancy at birth was 75.7 years in 2010, or 74.2 years for males and 77.3 years for females. "Arab League delegates head to Syria over 'bloodbath'. Other Syrian beverages include ayran, jallab, white coffee, and a locally manufactured beer called Al Shark. [183] The oil sector provided about 40% of export earnings. [201], Syria has four international airports (Damascus, Aleppo, Lattakia and Kamishly), which serve as hubs for Syrian Air and are also served by a variety of foreign carriers. Syria's large and prosperous population made Syria one of the most important of the Roman and Byzantine provinces, particularly during the 2nd and 3rd centuries (AD).[58]. Palmyra: Mirage in the Desert, Joan Aruz, 2018, page 78. a b Stanford J. Shaw, "Dynamics of Ottoman Society and administration", in "History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey", Egyptian Journal of Geology – Volume 42, Issue 1 – Page 263, 1998, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, * "The international community maintains that the Israeli decision to impose its laws, jurisdiction and administration in the occupied Syrian Golan is null and void and without international legal effect. [131] The government survived a series of armed revolts by Islamists, mainly members of the Muslim Brotherhood, from 1976 until 1982. In a major shift in relations with both other Arab states and the Western world, Syria participated in the US-led Gulf War against Saddam Hussein. The literacy rate of Syrians aged 15 and older is 90.7% for males and 82.2% for females. The Assyrians introduced Imperial Aramaic as the lingua franca of their empire. Syria is a traditional society with a long cultural history. [143] However, representatives of the Russian Federation have voiced their support of this election's results. Iraq 605 km, Israel 76 km, Jordan 375 km, Lebanon 375 km, Turkey 822 km, Maritime claims: [186] The UNDP announced in 2005 that 30% of the Syrian population lives in poverty and 11.4% live below the subsistence level. [236] During the Syrian Civil War many of Syria's artists, poets, writers and activists have been incarcerated, and some have been killed, including famed cartoonist Akram Raslam.[237]. The name "Syria" historically referred to a wider region, broadly synonymous with the Levant, and known in Arabic as al-Sham. Arbitrary detention, torture, and disappearances are widespread. the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem was given a separate status. [241], There are 6 state universities in Syria[242] and 15 private universities. The climate is predominantly dry; about three-fifths of the country has less than 250 millimeters (9.84 in) of rain a year. The ensuing instability following the 1961 coup culminated in the 8 March 1963 Ba'athist coup. Syrian Arab Republic Irrigation Sector Report. [190] Reconstruction needed because of the ongoing civil war will cost as much as US$10 billion. There was also a synthesis between the Semitic Arameans and the remnants of the Indo-European Hittites, with the founding of a number of Syro-Hittite states centered in north central Aram (Syria) and south central Asia Minor (modern Turkey), including Palistin, Carchemish and Sam'al. Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution (MARPOL 73/78), Wetlands It ultimately suffered defeat and loss of control of the entire Near East to the British Empire and French Empire. The coastal mountainous region was also occupied in part by the Nizari Ismailis, the so-called Assassins, who had intermittent confrontations and truces with the Crusader States. [134], Syria's judicial branches include the Supreme Constitutional Court, the High Judicial Council, the Court of Cassation, and the State Security Courts. [171] Nevertheless, Lebanon has continued to claim ownership of the territory. The flatness of this littoral, covered with sand dunes, is broken only by lateral promontories running down from the mountains to the sea. Al-Ashqar, who had married a Mongol woman, appealed for help from the Mongols. 41 nautical miles (75.9 km; 47.2 mi) It includes country boundaries, major cities, major mountains in shaded relief, ocean depth in blue color gradient, along with many other features. Yamhad was described in the tablets of Mari as the mightiest state in the near east and as having more vassals than Hammurabi of Babylon. From the Arab league, Syria continues to maintain diplomatic relations with Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Sudan and Yemen. Continuing pressure from Syrian nationalists and the British forced the French to evacuate their troops in April 1946, leaving the country in the hands of a republican government that had been formed during the mandate. According to the World Refugee Survey 2008, published by the U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, Syria hosted a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 1,852,300. [179] Iran is believed to spend between $6 billion and US$20 billion a year on Syria during the Syrian Civil War. [110][needs update] By October 2017, an estimated 400,000 people had been killed in the war according to the UN. In 2006 the population of Syria was 19.4 million with a growth rate of 2.7%. [221] Brazil is the first country in the Americas to offer humanitarian visas to Syrian refugees. Overall population density in Syria is about 99 per square kilometre (258 per square mile). Only heated debates in the United Nations lessened the threat of war.[80]. [233], Nearly all of Syria's media outlets are state-owned, and the Ba'ath Party controls nearly all newspapers. [161], The western two-thirds of Syria's Golan Heights region are since 1967 occupied by Israel and were in 1981 effectively annexed by Israel,[162][163] whereas the eastern third is controlled by Syria, with the UNDOF maintaining a buffer zone in between, to implement the ceasefire of the Purple Line. Like the Nubians, they come with animals, in this case horses, an elephant, and a bear; they also offer weapons and vessels most likely filled with precious substance." The release of the images came at a time when Iran was preparing for an anticipated retaliation to Israel strikes against Syria’s T-4 airbase in Homs last week. contiguous zone: Syria claimed a territorial limit of 35 nautical miles (64.8 km; 40.3 mi) off its Mediterranean coastline. [dubious – discuss] In March 2019, U.S. President Donald Trump announced that the United States will recognize Israel's annexation of the Golan Heights. [247], In 2010, spending on healthcare accounted for 3.4% of the country's GDP. [173] Law 134 was not designed strictly to protect workers. A country of fertile plains, high mountains, and deserts, Syria is home to diverse ethnic and religious groups, including Syrian Arabs, Kurds, Turkemens, Assyrians, Armenians, Circassians,

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